Medical Inspection (Department) Institutional Laboratory Construction & Decoration Instructions

2019-07-02 10:12:00   Editor: Yan Hong shares    0


In the field of biological laboratories, a dust-free environment is required. Some fluorescent tubes are placed on the test bench and above the cabinet to accurately analyze the laboratory data. At the same time, the purple light can be installed in the clean working area to play a bactericidal role.


The laboratory is a clinical diagnostic department that receives samples of blood, body fluids, etc. from hospitals for testing and analysis, and sends out test reports to clinicians. A scientifically designed laboratory can provide a safe and efficient working environment for inspectors. 


First, the layout

1. The laboratory should be located in the outpatient building and should be self-contained. The area of the inspection department of the top three hospitals should be no less than 1200, and the area of the inspection department of the hospital should be no less than 800. If the laboratory is also responsible for more research. , teaching tasks, the area should also be increased appropriately.


2. The layout of the laboratory should be able to clearly separate the clean area, semi-soil area and contaminated area. There should be partitions between the areas. The clean area is mainly composed of dressing room and office. The semi-polluted area is mainly composed of reagents. It is composed of auxiliary functions such as water system, and the pollution area is mainly composed of blood collection room and testing laboratory.


3. The inspection department should be separated from each other. Personnel and articles should have independent entrances and exits. In particular, the sewage should have a dedicated exit, and the hospital's sewage ladder should be sent to the hospital's centralized medical waste storage point, and the hospital's passenger elevator should not be taken.


4. In order to ensure the safety of the testing work, the biosafety laboratory should meet the requirements of the BSL-2 laboratory. The non-manual hand washing device and the emergency eyewash device should be installed at the exit of the biosafety laboratory. Part of the work with high pollution risk It should be carried out in a secondary biosafety cabinet.


(1) HIV screening laboratory: divided into clean area, semi-pollution area, and contaminated area, the area should not be less than 45.


(2) PCR laboratory: divided into reagent preparation room, sample preparation room, amplification analysis room, buffer room before each laboratory, the total PCR area should not be less than 60.


(3) Microbiology laboratory: divided into preparation room, buffer room and work area, the area should not be less than 35.


(4) The blood collection area should be divided into a separate area. The length of the blood collection window should not be less than 1.2m, and the width should be 45-60cm. The number of blood collection windows should be determined with reference to the daily average number of outpatient clinics, and appropriate consideration should be given to future development needs.


(5) The biochemical area should focus on the biochemical machine during the design. The biochemical machine is updated quickly. Before the design, it should contact the equipment manufacturer to determine the position, specification, weight, power, water consumption and other parameters of the equipment.


Second, clean decoration requirements

1. Wallboard and ceiling materials are easy to clean, disinfect, scrub, dust-free, crack-free, smooth and waterproof. The commonly used materials are double-sided sandwich color steel plates, and the fire rating is not lower than the flame retardant B1 grade.


2. The floor material requires a seamless non-slip and corrosion-resistant floor. The commonly used decorative materials are PVC or rubber floor. The joints to be laid are welded and planed with the same color welding rod.


3. Laboratory requirements for the door: It should be able to be automatically closed. There should be an observation window on the door. It should be equipped with a door lock and a door closer. A work status indicator can be installed on the door to indicate whether the laboratory is working.


4. Laboratory requirements for windows: It is not advisable to have an external window that can be opened on the wall, and a closed observation window can be provided.


5. The intersection of the wall and the wall of the laboratory, the intersection of the wall and the ground, the intersection of the wall and the ceiling shall be treated with circular arc, and the joints of the color steel plate shall be treated with sealant to ensure the gas of the laboratory. Confidentiality.


6. The height of the ceiling of the laboratory is 2.6m high, and the manhole or equipment access hole cannot be opened in the ceiling of the main laboratory.


7. New materials emerging in the clean laboratory renovation in recent years:


(1) Double-layer tempered glass window with adjustable louver: double-layer 8mm thick tempered glass with built-in adjustable blinds to increase the lighting and visual effects of the hall. The built-in shutters are non-polluting and do not need to be cleaned.


(2) Quickly assembling metal wall panels: mainly used as lightweight partition walls, with painted metal plates on both sides, filled with inorganic magnesium, which has the advantages of high fireproof grade, rich color and good wall texture compared with color steel plates. .


(3) Antibacterial wallboard: It is mainly used for interior wall decoration. It is coated with high-performance fluorocarbon coating and ceramic inorganic coating on the surface of gypsum board and metal sheet. The surface is dense and dust-free, scrub-resistant and acid-base resistant. It has a certain antibacterial effect and can be used for wall decoration in clean rooms.


Third, ventilation and air conditioning engineering

1. The purification laboratory should avoid the situation where multiple laboratories share one air conditioning unit. The separate air conditioning unit can effectively avoid cross-contamination and save operating costs.


2. Laboratory air conditioning design parameters should refer to the relevant requirements of the "Biosafety Laboratory Building Technical Specifications", and the heat and humidity loads of biological safety cabinets, centrifuges, incubators and other equipment should also be considered in the design.


3. The air purification system shall be equipped with three levels of coarse, medium and high air filtration. The coarse filter shall be located at the fresh air outlet, the medium efficiency filter shall be in the positive pressure section of the air conditioning unit, and the high efficiency filter shall be provided with the system air supply. End.


4. The fresh air outlet should be no less than 2.5m from the ground. The fresh air outlet should be protected from rain and pests. It should be equipped with a filter that is easy to remove and clean.


5. The exhaust fan of the laboratory should be interlocked with the blower. The exhaust fan should be opened before the blower and then closed by the blower. The exhaust ducts of the indoor exhaust duct and the biological safety cabinet should be set separately.


6. The air supply and exhaust in the clean room should be sent up and down. The indoor air supply and exhaust vents should be arranged to minimize the space in which the indoor airflow is stagnant.


7. A pressure difference of not less than 5 Pa should be maintained between the various sections of the laboratory to ensure that the airflow flows from the cleaning zone to the contaminated zone. The differential pressure gauge should be placed at an easily observable location.


8. Filters and air conditioning units should not use wooden materials. They should be resistant to corrosion and non-absorbent materials. The air leakage rate of air conditioning units should be less than 2%.


9. Comfort air conditioning mainly uses fan coil and fresh air system. In winter and summer, the hospital uses cold and heat sources. If there is no cold or heat source in the spring and autumn, the air-cooled module unit can provide cold and heat source.